When Humans Were Prey The Earth 10,000 Years Ago | 10,000 2 months ago   09:52

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Not too long ago, our early human ancestors were under constant threat of attack from predators. And it turns out that this difficult chapter in our history may be responsible for the adaptations that allowed us to become so successful.

Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the illustrations of the Taung Child. You can find more of Julio's work here: https://252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda

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References:
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/taung-child
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-robustus
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/oh-8
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4729050.stm
http://time.com/5424347/remains-neanderthal-giant-bird-poland/
http://scienceinpoland.pap.pl/en/news/news%2C31287%2Cscientists-discover-oldest-human-remains-poland-they-are-over-100000-years-old.html
Berger, L. R. (2006). Brief communication: Predatory bird damage to the Taung type-skull of Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: The Official Publication of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 131(2), 166-168.
Berger, L. R., & Clarke, R. J. (1995). Eagle involvement in accumulation of the Taung child fauna. Journal of Human Evolution, 29(3), 275-299.
Berger, L. R., & McGraw, W. S. (2007). Further evidence for eagle predation of, and feeding damage on, the Taung child. South African Journal of Science, 103(11-12), 496-498.
Blumenschine, R. J., Stanistreet, I. G., Njau, J. K., Bamford, M. K., Masao, F. T., Albert, R. M., ... & Fernández-Jalvo, Y. (2012). Environments and hominin activities across the FLK Peninsula during Zinjanthropus times (1.84 Ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 63(2), 364-383.
Brain, C. K. (1970). New finds at the Swartkrans australopithecine site. Nature, 225(5238), 1112.
Brain, C. K. (1983). The hunters or the hunted?: an introduction to African cave taphonomy. University of Chicago Press.
Bunn, H. T. (1991). A taphonomic perspective on the archaeology of human origins. Annual Review of Anthropology, 20(1), 433-467.
Dart, R. A. (1949). The predatory implemental technique of Australopithecus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 7(1), 1-38.
Dart, R. A. (1953). The predatory transition from ape to man. Brill.
Dart, R. A. (1958). The Minimal Bone-Breccia Content of Makapansgat and the Australopithecine Predatory Habit. American Anthropologist, 60(5), 923-931.
Hart, D. (2018). Man the hunted: Primates, predators, and human evolution. Routledge.
Hart, D., & Sussman, R. W. (2011). The influence of predation on primate and early human evolution: impetus for cooperation. In Origins of Altruism and Cooperation (pp. 19-40). Springer, New York, NY.
Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2006). A diagnosis of crocodile feeding traces on larger mammal bone, with fossil examples from the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai Basin, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(2), 142-162.
Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2012). Crocodylian and mammalian carnivore feeding traces on hominid fossils from FLK 22 and FLK NN 3, Plio-Pleistocene, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of human evolution, 63(2), 408-417.
Pickering, T. R., Schick, K. D., & Toth, N. P. (Eds.). (2007). Breathing life into fossils: taphonomic studies in honor of CK (Bob) Brain. Gosport, IN: Stone Age Institute Press.
Tobias, P. V. (1990). When and by whom was the Taung skull discovered. Para conocer al hombre: homenaje a Santiago Genovése. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma da Mexico, 207-213.
Washburn, S. L. (1957). Australopithecines: the hunters or the hunted?. American Anthropologist, 59(4), 612-614.
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Comments 1747 Comments

Carlos Coreno
Bro we werent monkeys🙄 if we were we wouldnt naturally have a fear toward animals. Were humans a whole different species
Indrid Cold
Humans are still prey when they enter into the ocean. When a human enters the ocean, they are on the menu.
MZA Method Man
"GET THE STRAP, KA, KA, KA"
Jose Garcia
My hold life is a theory.🤐😖😭
Siranat usawasutsakorn
Now, it's time for revenge!
-Some meme nerd.
Mitchell Neuhoff
We still are prey in some ways it’s humbling knowing we’re not completely on top.
Phillip Washington
Gotta watch this...
ShxdyNeo
How bold of you to assume a flying being could top me in the food chain
Asiano Casino
Christians believe in evolution right?
Alex G
Eats chicken nuggets... How the tables of turned...😝
TTYL NRN
I believe this video. Why? Because of crazy chickens from my childhood. We had chickens taller then 2feet. Most neighborhood dogs were scared of them chickens.
Dan Rooney
Most humans are still prey.
Vishnujana Dasa
Humans are naturally anatomically post. Eaters.

Horses and humans and other “sweaters” are all herbivores. Humans like herbivores and frugivores (which we more closely resemble) have alkaline saliva (ptyalin) whereas omnivores/carnivores have no carb-digesting enzymes. Similarly humans have smooth tongues like plant eaters and additionally we use the tongue to shovel food in like frugivores. Omnivores/carnivores have rough tongues-especially meat eaters for tearing flesh). We have simple livers and large salivary glands like plant eaters as opposed to the complex (extremely complex for carnivores) livers and small glands. Brian chemistry is different and many other things. Again our molars, incisors, and “canines” are different from meat eaters and we have well-developed facial@muscles for chewing whereas omni/carnivores have reduced muscles for wipe mouth gapes as they generally chomp* up and down and swallow their food in large chunks (*meat eaters jaws as mentioned chimp up and down generally and can’t move sideways). The jaws of plant eaters are the same but different from meager eaters both Omni and carnivores, which are similar to each other. Omnivores are generally carnivores who eat some plants. There are many other points too. Human instinct is to feel compassion for hurt animals (because we have advanced understanding such as empathy that interestingly enough animals also share often). We don’t salivate at dead corpses. But we do for grapes and oranges etc. Fruits and leafy greens are our ideal food. The health benefit even have been known for millennia.


https://consciousnourishment.org/2014/03/25/6-raw-foodists-over-50-that-look-decades-younger/
The Bug Lord
They're not birds! They're dragons!
Yanuchi Uchiha: Anime, Games and Ramdomness
*Looks slowly at the sparrow standing on the tree next to my window*
Ralph Gonzalez
Yo, who else grew up with PBS as a kid?
gokul balagopal
At that time there were carnivorous animals stronger than as, so we surely you would have been preyed upon
Valini S
So birds ate us in the beginning?🤔 now we eat birds ... hmmm time to enjoy that bucket of wings
Small Jeff
When birbs were huge and ate your children
Rafael Alvarez
Scavengers once the lightning started a fire tye scavemgers got down from trees with fire they can travel at night and cook the meat and got smarter by breaking protein down fire which speed up evolution brains got smarter with hunting started language
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The Earth 10,000 Years Ago | 10,000 When Humans Were Prey 2 months ago   15:10

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To celebrate 10,000 we thought we'd make a video exploring what our world was like 10,000 years ago. What was life like for the humans alive at the time? What was the climate like? And what animals were around? Thank you all so much for the support you've given to this channel!

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Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_human_prehistory
https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/domestication/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8th_millennium_BC
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeulmun_pottery_period
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amsa-dong
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/281/1787/20133254

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