When Humans Were Prey The Earth 10,000 Years Ago | 10,000 5 months ago   09:52

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Not too long ago, our early human ancestors were under constant threat of attack from predators. And it turns out that this difficult chapter in our history may be responsible for the adaptations that allowed us to become so successful.

Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Studio 252mya for the illustrations of the Taung Child. You can find more of Julio's work here: https://252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

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References:
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/taung-child
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-robustus
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/oh-8
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4729050.stm
http://time.com/5424347/remains-neanderthal-giant-bird-poland/
http://scienceinpoland.pap.pl/en/news/news%2C31287%2Cscientists-discover-oldest-human-remains-poland-they-are-over-100000-years-old.html
Berger, L. R. (2006). Brief communication: Predatory bird damage to the Taung type-skull of Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: The Official Publication of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 131(2), 166-168.
Berger, L. R., & Clarke, R. J. (1995). Eagle involvement in accumulation of the Taung child fauna. Journal of Human Evolution, 29(3), 275-299.
Berger, L. R., & McGraw, W. S. (2007). Further evidence for eagle predation of, and feeding damage on, the Taung child. South African Journal of Science, 103(11-12), 496-498.
Blumenschine, R. J., Stanistreet, I. G., Njau, J. K., Bamford, M. K., Masao, F. T., Albert, R. M., ... & Fernández-Jalvo, Y. (2012). Environments and hominin activities across the FLK Peninsula during Zinjanthropus times (1.84 Ma), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 63(2), 364-383.
Brain, C. K. (1970). New finds at the Swartkrans australopithecine site. Nature, 225(5238), 1112.
Brain, C. K. (1983). The hunters or the hunted?: an introduction to African cave taphonomy. University of Chicago Press.
Bunn, H. T. (1991). A taphonomic perspective on the archaeology of human origins. Annual Review of Anthropology, 20(1), 433-467.
Dart, R. A. (1949). The predatory implemental technique of Australopithecus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 7(1), 1-38.
Dart, R. A. (1953). The predatory transition from ape to man. Brill.
Dart, R. A. (1958). The Minimal Bone-Breccia Content of Makapansgat and the Australopithecine Predatory Habit. American Anthropologist, 60(5), 923-931.
Hart, D. (2018). Man the hunted: Primates, predators, and human evolution. Routledge.
Hart, D., & Sussman, R. W. (2011). The influence of predation on primate and early human evolution: impetus for cooperation. In Origins of Altruism and Cooperation (pp. 19-40). Springer, New York, NY.
Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2006). A diagnosis of crocodile feeding traces on larger mammal bone, with fossil examples from the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai Basin, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(2), 142-162.
Njau, J. K., & Blumenschine, R. J. (2012). Crocodylian and mammalian carnivore feeding traces on hominid fossils from FLK 22 and FLK NN 3, Plio-Pleistocene, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of human evolution, 63(2), 408-417.
Pickering, T. R., Schick, K. D., & Toth, N. P. (Eds.). (2007). Breathing life into fossils: taphonomic studies in honor of CK (Bob) Brain. Gosport, IN: Stone Age Institute Press.
Tobias, P. V. (1990). When and by whom was the Taung skull discovered. Para conocer al hombre: homenaje a Santiago Genovése. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma da Mexico, 207-213.
Washburn, S. L. (1957). Australopithecines: the hunters or the hunted?. American Anthropologist, 59(4), 612-614.
Zuberbühler, K., & Jenny, D. (2002). Leopard predation and primate evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 43(6), 873-886.

Comments 1747 Comments

Universoul Man
What if all this destruction of the environment and extinction of species is Payback
David Griffiths
Vultures would have been the main avian consumer of human remains. Eagles have a size limit much less than a 60 kg ape, only now extinct marine gliders got anywhere near our weight. Standing upright has advantages for spotting and confronting an attacker no doubt. If we consider predation in the Savanah was the main driving force we only need look at what makes us different...upright, cooperative, able to imagine and think ahead, advanced communication, opposable thumb for advanced tool use and an anomalously long life span suggesting selection for accumulated knowledge and experience.
Last Nyanmurai
This is why we made fried chicken
KiwiGirlG6
like the Hasst Eagle in New Zealand??
Bad Dragonite
PBS EONS: Humans could've been prey at some point.
(*meanwhile thousands die to crocs and tigers regularly every year in the modern day*)
Lord Frieza
Well our ancestors didnt met dinosaurs but they met the creatures that some of them evolved into the BIRDS! TAN TAN TAAAAN!
greatest
“Not so long ago”
Would it sound right if I said, “Not so long ago, George Washington was elected president” 😂
greatest
Now they’re prey. Revenge is a fools game.
Anthony Arcano
Human Evolution its such a load of crap, its a theory soo full of holes.... truth be told nobody knows for real were we come from. humans are the biggest mystery ever.
LOL Science
*were* prey? My cat would disagree!
F Kua
Tell that to the crocodile that ate 300+ humans in Burundi.
Dan Montana
And now likes cancer, we cannot maintain a steady population. Top predators usually breed less frequently, but not us. We refuse to die and have 4 kids on average....
Ryan Pearson
These poor bastards. Imagine one of your kids being eaten right in front of you. But there is no time for tears. You need to find food so your other kid doesn't starve.

Here I sit with a fridge full of food, ac, plumbing, and I can dial a number and an ambulance will have me in a building with every medical technology available.

As much as life can suck. I am glad to be alive in this time.
gridley 530
I don't know where u guys stay at but I stay in AMERICAA we have guns
西依
my favorite theory
redcinos
What is the goal confusing people..
redcinos
🤣🤣🤣🤣So, we could say king Kong was your ancestors. Hey!!!. We're not saying. It's coming out of your own mouth!.
Joe Conklin
“The Predator Ape Theory is cool but have you ever hear the Stoned Ape Theory?”- Joe Rogan
6 1
I am sexist, but at least I am honest about it. Sorry ladies
hellscorpio82
Anyone up for thanksgiving turkey?
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The Earth 10,000 Years Ago | 10,000 When Humans Were Prey 5 months ago   15:10

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To celebrate 10,000 we thought we'd make a video exploring what our world was like 10,000 years ago. What was life like for the humans alive at the time? What was the climate like? And what animals were around? Thank you all so much for the support you've given to this channel!

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Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_human_prehistory
https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/domestication/
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