5 of the Coolest Partnerships Between Animals 18 Genetically Modified Organisms You Don't 2 months ago   12:11

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This Valentine’s Day, send a little love to your bacterial buddies! Our microbes keep us healthy, but some bacteria give their animal companions superpowers, like immunity to poison, or even invisibility!

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:

Aphids
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.17
http://web.uconn.edu/mcbstaff/graf/Aphids.html
https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/barley/aphid-feeding-damage-cereal-crops
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2974440/
https://books.google.ca/books?id=FzBs_QgihRIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1042/BC20070135
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105579039790419X
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3041126/
https://www.pnas.org/content/109/20/E1230/1
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/12265071.2001.9647599
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jgam1955/42/1/42_1_17/_article/-char/ja/

Desert woodrats
https://academic.oup.com/icb/article/57/4/723/3896233?guestAccessKey=1d5fd2a3-f361-4f95-85b2-6fba5419fa2d
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ele.12329
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081%5B2067:IDITTC%5D2.0.CO%3B2
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01165/full
https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp85-c4.pdf
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1378444?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081%5B2067:IDITTC%5D2.0.CO%3B2
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1954740

Clams
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC21444/
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14772000.2016.1252438
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00569130
https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro1992
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00114-014-1165-3
http://www.whoi.edu/feature/history-hydrothermal-vents/pdf/PLonsdaleDSRv24.pdf
https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-9-585

Blue-ringed octopus
https://oceanconservancy.org/blog/2017/03/13/the-blue-ringed-octopus-small-but-deadly/
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00391147
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/animal-guide-blue-ringed-octopus/2177/
http://www.sfjo-lamer.org/la_mer/22-3_4/maruyama_noguchi.pdf
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166445X1830465X
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2857372/

Bobtail squid
https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(08)01137-8.pdf
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00227-003-1285-3
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843225/
https://www.pnas.org/content/102/8/3004.short

Images:

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%E3%82%A2%E3%83%96%E3%83%A9%E3%83%A0%E3%82%B7_(17341041222).jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2012.10.19.-25-Mannheim_Vogelstang-Blattlaeuse.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Journal.pbio.0050126.g001.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:L-Tryptophan_-_L-Tryptophan.svg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Schizaphis_graminum_usda_(cropped).jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Desert_Packrat_(Neotoma_lepida)_eating_a_peanu_01.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Creosote-Bush_(4485551500).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mojave_vista.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1st_Place_-_Spring_Storm_in_the_Great_Basin_(7186595011).jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Desert_Packrat_(Neotoma_lepida)_in_a_Century_Plant_(Agave_americana).JPG
https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/20371479442/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Champagne_vent_white_smokers.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Muscheln_mit_Sipho_Nahaufnahme.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bubbles_hires.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hawaiian_Bobtail_squid.tiff
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Euprymna_scolopes,_South_shore_of_Oahu,_Hawaii.tiff

Comments 416 Comments

Arth
If something is produced inside the body then it isn't vitamin by definition.
John Archie Ablanque
0:31 clown fish and sea ANENOMES?
Am I the only one who heard it?
Alyssa Mingorance
Can there be a video about the types of bacteria that live inside of us?
Kathleen Faris
It's valintines day people all around the world celebrating love so that means we're going to be talking about bacteria Oh my god Hank how did you know
Jamilah Mitchell
This my favorite host from this channel
angel whispers
or more practically... take your prebiotic and pro biotic. your guts will thank you
dylan
Wait, so we could possibly target bacteria with antibiotics to control aphids instead of using pesticide. That might reduce a lot of collateral damage if it's narrow scope enough, like by horizontal gene transfer using a plasmid.
Jesus Mark
So that the source of creosol?
Walter Loehrmann
There is a plant in south america that houses a garrison of ants for defence in exchange for liquids.
Aaron Ortiz
surprising how persuasive Hank is at the end ...
qPixel
The truest symbiotic power couple: Eddie Brock and Venom
I Dunoh
6:28 Really? They do that?! **Ex-clam**
Lizzard
Aphids born pregnant...so, like tribbles, then?
Norea Asia W.
I love me some sea anenemies
Derpy Woodoo
So if I'm understanding you correctly, we could use anti-biotics instead of pesticides on aphids?
sean Hillebrandt
Wish I could afford it Hank keep up the amazing videos I love learning with you guys.
ign Nolo / laliluza
chloroplast/mitochondria much?
James S
Humans + mitochondria
Mayur
Why random shade on Jay-Z and Beyonce or whoever..
Barbara Zhang
Aphids are the insparation for tribbles.
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18 Genetically Modified Organisms You Don't 5 of the Coolest Partnerships Between Animals 2 months ago   10:00

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From Glow in the Dark Rabbit to Anti-Cancer Purple Tomatoes here are 18 Genetically Modified Organisms You Don't Know About

Subscribe to Talltanic http://goo.gl/wgfvrr

# 9 Fish Strawberries
The ripest and juiciest strawberries you got from the supermarket might contain the genetic traces of a fish. Scientists have been experimenting with combining strawberries with the “anti-freeze genes” that are found in cold water fish like Arctic Char and Sea flounders which help the strawberries resist freezing and dying in bad weather. Luckily, it doesn’t create a weird fishy-tasting strawberry.


# 8 Glow in the Dark Rabbit
Most genetically modified organisms have a scientific purpose in mind or a greater goal that usually justifies messing with something’s DNA spread. However, Eduard Kac used genetic engineering for creating works of art rather than for scientific research. His most notorious work was the Glow in the Dark rabbit named Alba. It sparked a debate about animal rights, but Alba died before anything was resolved.

# 7 Goats Spliced with Spiders
When you think of genetically splicing something with a spider, you usually think of superheroes with spider themed super powers. However, in real life, you can find animals that have been genetically combined with spiders - goats. Spider silk is flexible and strong, and some even want to try and produce it on a larger scale so we can use it to make things like parachute cords. One lab has spliced spider’s genes with a goat so that these flexible and strong spider silk genes would be replicated in their milk. This silk milk is also able to create Biosteel, a strong web-like material.

# 6 Golden Rice
Rice is a major staple food in many parts of the world partly because it's cheap and partly because it helps you feel full even when you don’t have much to eat. However, the normal white rice isn’t very healthy for you. That is why scientists are working on Golden Rice, rice that was spliced with vegetables like squash and carrots that not only create the golden color but include beta-carotene which is more nutrient dense and could help prevent blindness in children who eat it.

# 5 Ear Mouse
The most notorious genetically modified animal might be the ear mouse or the “Vacanti Mouse” which was created in 1995 by scientists in Massachusetts. The scientists wanted to prove that cartilage structures could be grown on other living creatures before being removed and transplanted into humans who need it. However, this mouse would quickly become famous or infamous as it went onto the Jay Leno show and then used as a mascot by animal-rights groups who were opposed to genetic modifications.

# 4 Scorpion Cabbage
The Androctonus australis is one of the most dangerous scorpions in the world with a venom that can cause tissue damage and death. So of course, we combined the genes from this scorpion with cabbage intended for human consumption. The gene of the scorpion’s venom changed when it was spliced with the cabbage. The venom is now only poison to insects, which spasm and die when they try to eat the crop. That same poison is supposedly completely harmless to humans, making it the perfect crop.

# 3 Anti-Cancer Purple Tomatoes
Researchers have created a tomato that is not only more flavorful but would also help prevent cancer. The researchers spliced tomatoes with the snapdragon flower to create a deep, purple tomato that almost looks like a blackberry. These super tomatoes contain potent antioxidants and inhibit the growth of cancer cells, ease the symptoms of diabetes, and even relieve the pains of growing old. You might just see purple tomatoes on your pizza someday soon.


# 2 Chinese Dog-Pig
This image went around the internet with a bunch of people thinking it was some sort of failed chimera of a pig and a dog because of its pink skin and strange tufts of hair. While it was not an animal that was genetically engineered in a lab, it is an animal that has been genetically engineered over generations and generations, like most dogs are. This dog, in particular, is the Hairless Chinese Crested Dog - an expensive and rare breed of dog that is highly sought after by some people. Even though the winner of the annual world’s ugliest dog contest is usually a Chinese Crested.


# 1 Less-Flatulent Cows
You might have heard that cows produce an excess of methane, which contributes to the dangerous greenhouse effect. It’s hard to make cows stop producing methane since they’re some of the most populous domestic livestock in the world and that is a natural part of their digestive progress. Until we genetically modified cattle to produce 25 less percent of the bacterium in their digestive tract that creates methane gas. Basically, we made cows that fart less.