New Jersey Legacy: The Suburban State Visit New York City Guide 2 months ago   26:47

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David Cohen
The second half of the twentieth century witnessed a major of shift in political power in New Jersey. In the early 1900s a coalition of rural Republicans and urban Democrats controlled state politics. In the second half the century political power shifted to the suburbs. The essence of suburban living was residing in the country and commuting to work in the city. One of the earliest planned suburbs in America was Llewellyn Park in Orange, New Jersey, designed between 1857 and 1870 by Alexander Jackson Davis and others.

In the nineteenth century, the railroad was one of the chief means of commuting. It was also the main way of transporting freight. However, the freight bound for New York City had to be unloaded on the Hudson County side of the Hudson River and transferred onto barges to cross the river. In order to alleviate this problem, the Port Authority of New York was established in 1921. While its original mission was to expedite railroad transportation, the authority soon shifted its attention to trucks and automobiles by building a network of bridges and tunnels. The consequence of these Port Authority projects was to spur suburban development in New Jersey.

Federal policy also encouraged the growth of the suburbs. The Federal Housing Administration created in 1934 and the GI Bill in 1944 provided low-cost mortgages to families who otherwise would not have been able to afford to buy their own houses. However, these agencies tended to discriminate against urban centers, reinforcing racial and class segregation in housing. Another factor that led to the decline of the cities was the development in the 1950s of regional shopping centers
located near suburban communities. These centers were modeled on the small town square, except that they were private, not public, property. Furthermore, it was difficult for poor and nonwhite residents of the cities to get to the shopping centers, except possibly to work at low-paying jobs. Thus, the shopping centers not only undermined the downtown department stores, but also resulted in a new form of class and racial segregation. Newark went into an economic decline as downtown stores closed and businesses and residents that could move to the suburbs.

The new state constitution of 1947 established a powerful supreme court, which became a flashpoint for controversy in the last half of the twentieth century. In 1973, the New Jersey Supreme Court decided that the reliance on property taxes to fund public education violated the clause of the state constitutional guarantee of a “thorough and efficient” education to every schoolchild. However, the state legislature refused to provide funding for attempts for equalize the spending for urban and suburban schools, and so the supreme court ordered the closing of the public schools. This forced the governor and legislature to pass the state’s first income tax. But the inequalities continued, and in 1990 the court again decided that the state’s poorest districts must have equal funding with the state’s wealthiest districts.

In the 1970s, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sued the township of Mount Laurel, claiming that the township’s zoning ordinance discriminated against the poor, the young, and the old. The case made its way up to the state supreme court, which in 1975 declared the township’s zoning law unconstitutional. The decision led to years of controversy about the appropriate remedy. Finally, in 1985, the state legislature established an Affordable Housing Council, which was empowered to determine the affordable housing obligation of developing suburban communities. However, the council also permitted these communities to sell part of their affordable housing obligation to nearby cities.

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Visit New York City Guide New Jersey Legacy: The Suburban State 2 months ago   41:52

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New York City! We've traveled abroad to many far off corners of the world; however, we've yet to find a city that quite lives up to the Big Apple. Join as we share our New York City travel experiences in the form of a top 50 things to do in the city guide where we cover top attractions along with extended footage in the form of vlogs where we visit places we didn't cover the first time around. From the High Line to Brooklyn Bridge and Smorgasburg to Governors Island our guide offers a bit of something for everyone.

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1) 50 Things to do in New York City Top Attractions Travel Guide:
1 Grand Central Terminal
2 The High Line
3 Meatpacking District
4 Greenwich Village
5 Brooklyn Bridge
6 Williamsburg
7 Street Art in Williamsburg
8 Prospect Park
9 Dumbo
10 New York Style Pizza
11 Bryant Park
12 New York Public Library
13 Staten Island Ferry
14 Statue of Liberty
15 Battery Park
16 Little Italy
17 Little Korea
18 Chinatown
19 Coney Island
20 Mermaid Parade
21 The Cloisters
22 Harlem's Apollo Theatre
23 Soul Food in Harlem at Sylvia's
24 World Trade Center Memorial
25 Trinity Church
26 Wall Street
27 Lincoln Center
28 Ride a Bicycle
29 Watch a New York Yankees baseball game at Yankee Stadium
30 MET Museum (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
31 Flatiron Building
32 Washington Square Park
33 NYU (New York University)
34 National Museum of the American Indian
35 Museum of Natural History
36 Times Square
37 MOMA (Museum of Modern Art)
38 Roosevelt Island Tramway
39 Fifth Avenue Shopping
40 Rockefeller Center
41 Empire State Building
42 Carnegie Hall
43 Central Park
44 Strawberry Fields
45 Street Food
46 Catch a Broadway Theatre Performance
47 Madison Square Garden
48 African Burial Ground
49 Columbus Circle
50 Take the Subway Metro

New York City Travel Vlogs:

1) New York City Bagels Taste Test
2) Katz's Deli: Eating Pastrami and Corned Beef Meat Sandwiches in New York City
3) Exploring Governors Island in New York City
4) Smorgasburg Brooklyn Flea Food Market
5) Eating burgers at the original Shake Shack - Madison Square Park, New York City
6) Coney Island Mermaid Parade in New York City

This is part of our Travel in America series. We're making a series of videos showcasing American culture, American arts, American foods, American religion, American cuisine and American people.

All photos and video taken by Samuel Jeffery (Nomadic Samuel) and Audrey Bergner (That Backpacker).

Music in this video courtesy of Audio Network